A huge part of my excitement over visiting Northern India was, of course, the food. Everyone I knew ranted and raved about dishes throughout the country, their eyes glazing over and slightly losing focus, minds reeling with memories of tastes and smells. From those who had visited Rajasthan, tales of vegetables coated in spices and crunchy street snacks grabbed wherever possible flowed freely. I imagined tiny corner stalls piled high with treats, fried on-the go. I wasn’t wrong. But as a celiac in Northern India, what could I eat? Here is my guide to gluten free Indian food, from my weeks in the country.
Notwithstanding the fact that many Indian meals do have rice, Northern India’s tastes often skew toward wheat—more than I realized. While Punjab is referred to as the “breadbasket” of the country, during our time in Rajasthan we were showered with wheat add-ons to our meals, local breads such as chapatis and rotis for all. Well, except me.
Our guide Manu would wrinkle his nose at the rice offerings, explaining he was from Rajasthan where wheat is the chosen carb for his family. “You and your rice,” he would tease, shaking his head. Of course, this just meant that I offered him rice at every opportunity I could, purely to annoy him. But with Manu’s guidance and a lot of exploring, I was also able to find all sorts of other non-rice carbohydrates to keep me entertained.
I should note that I am extremely sensitive and that I have celiac disease, not a milder intolerance. Eating foods fried in oil that has been contaminated with breaded products will get me sick; anything with even a little soy sauce will do the same. And so on. I mention this in the event celiacs stumble on the site, to make clear that with heightened sensitivity in mind, I have compiled the following list.
What to Eat if You’re Gluten Free While in Northern India
Note that cross-contact is a real concern and it is important to ask and understand whether or not the same oil is used to fry unsafe foods, like samosas, as set forth below. Spices are also not as simple as elsewhere, as many can be ‘cut’ with wheat and thus unsafe. I am working on a translation card for Hindi, but for the moment the following list is how I made do when I spent my weeks in Northern India.
Poha is naturally gluten free
With breakfast included in our guesthouses, many catered to Western tastes, and the staff seemed confused about my refusal of the breads they had on offer. I learned quickly that a fast and easy alternative was poha, a dish made from flattened rice that is fried with turmeric, chili powder, onions, mustard seeds and more. Easy to make and satisfying, it goes quite well with eggs.
*Again, it’s important to ask about cross-contact and whether or not the oil / pan used for frying was contaminated with any wheat.
Bajra Roti or Makki ki Roti, an Indian bread celiacs can eat
While traditional roti is made with wheat, we saw millet growing along the long drives in Rajasthan, a staple food I tend to forget about when I am home. Pre-made bajra (the word for millet) rotis are not advised as often wheat is mixed in the batter. However, many guesthouses and restaurants were more than happy to make a pure bajra roti, which I was then able to use to soak up my sauce from dinner. The breads are a dense and slightly difficult to digest alternative to the lighter wheat version, but went quite well with the more sauce-based curries and stews.
Here is a palak paneeer, a spinach and soft cheese dish famous in Rajasthan, with this celiac-friendly bread. It’s important to confirm no cross-contact!
In addition to millet, some Punjabi restaurants and the occasional street vendor will also make makki ki roti, corn-based bread that is also gluten-free. NOTE: Occasionally vendors will dust the finished product with wheat flour — or so I was warned. That said, I never found any that did, and I did not get sick.
Dosa, a gluten free dish from South India also found in the North*
Yes, dosas are customarily associated with South India. They are slim spongey ‘crepes’ made from lentil and rice batter and spread thin like a pancake and grilled, either with filling or without. For those concerned about eating street food and getting sick, the chutneys that accompany these dosa on the street ought to be avoided as many are uncooked sauces. The dosa itself, however, makes for a great meal. Despite traveling in the North, there were often South Indian restaurants in town for a sampling. In addition, in the markets of Jaipur and Jodphur and in Bikaner I found small dosa stalls on the street, making a potato-masala filled masterpiece for only 50 cents.
*It’s important to confirm there is no maida in the dosa, a wheat flour that some restaurants or vendors may use in the batter. The original recipes do not call for this addition, but as with many spots around the world, wheat sneaks its way in especially when it is cost-effective to do so.
Papadum, made from pulses and delicious
Papadum gluten free crispy lentil or black gram crackers taste great when dipped in tamarind or mint and cilantro chutneys, and have long been a staple in my kitchen, no matter where I am in the world.
In Northern India they were found at the occasional breakfast table, but usually accompanying a curry or sauce-based meal or atop a plate of thali (see below). Gluten-free, they are the perfect opposite to a fiery main dish, crunchy mixed with soft and savory. As I note below, where meals come with a chapati or roti included, it was never an issue to substitute a papadum instead.
It’s important to ask whether these are made with asafoetida – see below for more about that, and why it’s off limits for celiacs. Be sure to ask if the papadum (also known as poppadom) were made with asafoetida before you consume!
Pakora (And Other Chickpea Flour Snacks)*
While many of the street snacks were off limits, pakora were found in most of Rajasthan, and were occasionally the only available item on the menu that was, as the group started calling it, “Jodi-friendly.” Made by taking vegetables or paneer and coating them in spice-filled chickpea (gram) flour and then deep-frying, they were cheap and abundant. While not the healthiest (nothing deep-fried is), they were nonetheless an easy alternative when we stopped for a snack, or in-between main meals.
Pakoras or other chickpea snacks (like the fried dal balls below) were primarily found on the appetizer list at restaurants or at chaat (savory snack) vendors on the street.
*As always, it is important to ask about cross-contact! The good thing about street stalls is that they often serve one or two foods, and thus it’s a higher chance of uncontaminated, gluten-free oil. If a street stall is serving other fried items that are wheat-based, such as samosas or kachori, it will be unsafe for a celiac.
Vegetarian thali were a great option too, a metal tray filled with small metal cups and containing a vegetable dish, yoghurt curd, dal (lentils), rice and pickled vegetables. Depending on the style of thali (Bengali versus Punjabi versus Rajasthani and so many more) your options will vary, but overall a very safe choice for my stomach. Keep in mind, too, that even if the dish comes with chapati or roti, you can almost always ask for extra rice or a papadum instead.
Lassi, a delicious yoghurt drink served savory or sweet, was highly recommended by friends who had travelled to India as both a refreshing snack and a way to ensure my intestines stayed full of the right bacteria. From the cardamom and lemon version I tried in Jodphur (THE BESTEST) to the saffron and almond iteration on the streets of Old Delhi, lassis are everywhere.
Note: Beware those stalls that use tap water to water down their lassis. With the exception of one restaurant in Jaipur, I never had any lassi issues and almost all the lassi were thick and creamy, not watered down.
I devoted a full section of my Northern India overview post to bhujia, and with good reason. This spiced chickpea flour snack made famous in the city of Bikaner was both addictive and filling, and kept my hunger at bay between meals. While I always asked if it was 100% chickpea (gram) flour, the answer never wavered. Pre-packaged bhujia is also available throughout the region in foil bags, and it too was wheat-free. As always, be sure to verify!
Biryani and Pulao
Not limited to India, biryani are found and consumed in many different countries, a fragrant, sautéed spiced rice with a recipe that differs depending on location. While pulao is also made from spiced rice and meat or vegetables, there is a difference between the two. Paraphrasing from a chef I met in India, generally biryani contains much more spices and involves boiling the rice separately and then layering the meat and vegetables and cooking it together once again. In contrast, pulao is made with less spices and meat but the rice is added uncooked, a milder version than in biryani. In addition, pulao is usually wetter as excess liquid after cooking is not drained.
Regardless, both were available throughout Northern India at almost every restaurant, and though I prefer the spices of a biryani, a vegetable and egg pulao became a comfort food during my weeks in the region.
Dal is normally gluten free*
Dal, filling saucy lentil, are manifold in India and there are far too many dal dishes to try to list here. Readers have asked if dal means one dish – but it doesn’t. Many many dal for the tasting!
Suffice it to say that my favourite afternoon snack was dal tadka, yellow lentils with spices, and jeera rice, which is rice spiced with dry cumin seeds. Simple and delicious. Other tempting dal options include dal makhani, made with black lentils instead of the lighter yellow version.
No matter the menu, dal was a go-to saviour. When we stopped in at a midday truck stop and only wheat options were listed, I simply asked for dal and rice and was rewarded with a flavourful and cheap snack. I saved this for last because it is so ubiquitous that even when not seemingly on offer, you can usually get a plate. In a pinch, it kept me full, gave me protein and was also so much more tasty than I expected.
*Note that this dal category not include dal baati churma for us celiacs. Dal baati churma is a popular Rajasthani dish, also popular in Uttar Pradesh and other regions, and includes a lot of wheat. Dal, we know is the lentil component. But bati are wheat rolls that are fried or baked, and churma is itself a powdered wheat ball. So: DO NOT opt for this dish as it is not safe.
Is curry gluten free?
The answer is: most of the time, at least in my experience. But there are plenty of reports where a curry is made with spices cut with wheat, or with wheat flour itself to thicken. In North America, Indian food is often made gluten free specifically to cater to their audience of increasing celiac and GF diners. In India, however, celiac disease is not well known (though stats show it is not as uncommon as people believe; see the study at the bottom of this guide!). As a result, asking as many questions as possible is the way to eat safely.
Despite being quite wheat-heavy as a region, the curry dishes I consumed did not have wheat in them. I asked often, and it was almost always chickpea flour that was used instead, or nothing was used to thicken. Wheat is a common thickener for dishes around the world, but I was thankful that it did not preclude my consumption on this trip.
From paneer (soft cheese) cooked in spinach, to grilled meats or vegetables, to chicken curries, all were available with rice and none got me sick. Sides to meals included grilled okra with cumin or potatoes with spices, with none of the vegetables ever causing an issue.
Another go-to was the halal grilled meat spots I found, which had chicken on the fire, roasted after being marinated in a variety of sauces. From the green mint and chili chicken to masala spiced wings, none had any wheat in their marinades, and we were sure to ask repeatedly.
And, let us not forget chai tea, available on the side of the road in tiny clay or plastic cups, boiled fresh with spices and thick milk. I couldn’t smell it being made without clamouring for a cup, drifting over to whoever was crouched over a tiny stove, bubbling tea in front of him.
What to Avoid: Unsafe Foods for Celiacs in Northern India
Despite the large variety of snacks and dishes to choose from, the regions snack foods are predominantly wheat-based. Below is a list of foods that ought to be avoided for those with celiac disease, even though they look absolutely delicious.
Rotis, chappatis, naan, parathas, puris are all off limits. Pani puri, a tamarind water served in a thin, curved wheat puff, is everywhere on the streets and was hard to resist — but I did.
Spices like hing, or asafoetida
Spices that are pure are going to be naturally gluten free, but in some cases they are “cut” (processed with) wheat. One such spice is hing, known in the West as asafoetida. It’s a strong spice extracted from an herb called ferula, which is in the same family as celery. The hing is made from the gum of the herb, and has a very garlicky, pungent smell. A friend in Delhi who has no gluten issues was shocked to discover his asafoetida was 55% wheat when I asked him to check the label. Used as intended, a pinch of this spice is a good substitute for garlic, but due to its usual combo with wheat flour, asking about the type of hing used and the nature of the ingredients in your dishes is very important in India. Always ask if there is hing in the chutneys, pakora, papadums, curries, or soups, and whether its label includes wheat.
Samosas are not gluten free, sadly
Found throughout the day on the streets and in restaurants, with wheat flour triangle dumpling hosting a filling of either paneer or vegetarian (potatoes and peas and spices).
The bhaji part of this fast food dish — a spicy tomato and vegetable stew — is safe, but it is served with pav, a white flour bread resembling a hamburger bun that is used to sop up the stew. Solution for me was to just ask for the bhaji, to the confusion of the street vendors.
A crispy fried snack filled with mung beans, the outside of kachori is wheat based and must be avoided.
Dal Baati Churma
As mentioned above, this is a popular snack made from lentils, a baked wheat ball and a sweet powdered wheat cereal, and this thus off limits.
Beware of cross-contact for tandoori chicken
While the meats themselves are gluten free, cooking in a tandoor is usually unsafe because of the cross-contact, since breads are also cooked in the same oven. It’s worth asking if the stall or restaurant makes bread in the same oven, but in my experience the answer is almost always yes. There are thankfully many other dishes to choose from instead.
Poori, looks tasty—but full of gluten
An unleavened fried bread made with whole wheat flour and salt, and often eaten during breakfast.
Sevian / seviyan / semiyan
Different spelling for the same rich dessert that is often used during festivals. Its base is a brownish short vermicelli made from wheat, so it is off limits to those who are gluten free in India.
Jalebi, imarti, and other fried desserts
Round, bright orange desserts made with fried dough, both are off limits (though they looked so good). For desserts, I mostly ate fresh fruit or more lassi.
Resources & Further Reading for Gluten-Free Travellers in India
- Celiac Disease India, a site that proclaims “Life can be as enjoyable without gluten”.
- Celiac Society of India, the overarching association in the country.
- The Celiac Society of Rajasthan, including their Gluten Free Restaurant Card for Rajasthan (note: no mention of cross contamination).
- Gluten Free Travel India.
- An article about the “impending epidemic” of celiac disease in India and another from the Times of India called “Gluten Free Not Celiac Friendly“.
- Indian Express’ post about what Indians need to know about going gluten free in the country, including to “use gluten-free substitutes in place of gluten-containing foods. One can replace chappati bread to ragi or nachni chapati, nachni bread. Soya flour can also be used instead of wheat puff. Remember lots of foods are naturally gluten-free such as vegetables, meat, poultry, quinoa, fish cheese and eggs so use these as the basis to your meals.”
- For those in Delhi, there is now a gluten-free cafe in town, making pizza, breads and other treats.
- General reference for non-wheat flours, with photos.
- Where to buy gluten free Italian products in India, from Jeeva Bakes
- If you’re heading to South India, here is a gluten free guide (with some restaurant suggestions), and another from Sarah at Endless Distances here. You’ll need to add different dishes to the “watch out!” list there. Peni, uppama,
- Gluten Free Living India’s list of safe/unsafe items
This is but a short overview (yes, I know — short for me means over 2000 words), listing some of the foods that made India’s wheat basin feel comforting to a celiac like me.
While I did some research prior to leaving and asked many questions while on the road, I welcome additional thoughts or suggestions and can update the post accordingly. With only a few weeks there, I have no doubt I’ve missed some other options.
And finally: here is a “know before you go” piece from Roads and Kingdoms, helpful for a trip to Delhi.